As technology reaches into every corner of our world, the importance of, and reliance on, your mission critical facility reaches new heights. Uptime is no longer a lofty goal, it is an absolute necessity. Maximum Uptime is a philosophy. It begins with the planning of your facility, and remains a continuous process through every step of design, construction, commissioning, operations, failure analysis, and recommissioning.


There is much confusion in the marketplace about the different types of UPS Systems and their characteristics. This white paper will define each type, discuss the practical applications for each type, and each kind’s advantages and disadvantages. With this information, an educated decision can be made as to the appropriate UPS topology for a given need.


Our world today has become reliant on systems in support of a global economy and communication network that are powered by a combination of both DC and AC electrical power sources.


“High-Availability” power systems require Reliability, Functionality, Maintainability, and Fault Tolerance. The distribution of AC power between your UPS and load equipment will ultimately determine your Maintainability and Fault Tolerance. Learn more.


Although electronic components are not subject to wear in the same degree as electromagnetic (EM) components, they do require systematic maintenance. A standard maintenance procedure cannot be developed for all types and sizes of UPS units.


“High-Availability” power systems require Reliability, Functionality, Maintainability, and Fault Tolerance. A few UPS configurations can overcome the “Last Four Hours” problem to achieve Continuous Availability of conditioned power. These configurations also greatly improve the power systems’ fault tolerance, as we shall see. 


A dependable uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system is essential to protecting data centers and server rooms from unplanned downtime and equipment damage.

This paper compares two UPS systems marketed for small and midsize data centers. These products represent remarkably different design philosophies. The impact of these differing philosophies on reliability and cost of ownership is addressed.


This white paper helps explain the differences between watts and VA and explains how the terms are correctly and incorrectly used in specifying power protection equipment.


UPS systems are technical products. Various designs which externally seem similar are internally very different. These differences genuinely cause significant performance differences in quality of performance and longevity of components.